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rabble n. disorderly crowd; mob ;
rabid adj. suffering from rabies
rabies n. fatal virus disease causing madness in dogs, foxes and other animals, transmitted to humans usu by a bite ,
raconteur n. person who tells stories skilfully and wittily
raffle n. lottery with an article as the prize
rag n. odd cloth, usu torn, frayed, etc
ragamuffin n. person, esp a small boy, in dirty untidy clothes
rail n. level or sloping bar or connected series of bars of wood or metal, eg forming part of a fence, the top of a banister, a protective barrier, etc
raiment n. clothing
rake n. long-handled tool with a row of prongs at the end for drawing together fallen leaves, smoothing soil, etc
rakish adj. of or like a rake
rally v. ~ (round/to sb/sth); ~ (round) (of people) come together, esp to make new efforts, eg after a defeat or when there is danger, need, etc
ram n. uncastrated male sheep .
ramble v. walk for pleasure with no special destination
ramification n. part of a complex structure; secondary consequence, esp one that complicates
ramify v. (fml ) (cause sth to) branch out in many directions; make or become a network
ramp n. slope joining two levels of ground, a floor, a road, etc
rampant adj. flourishing excessively; unrestrained
rampart n. defensive wall round a fort, etc consisting of a wide bank of earth with a path for walking along the top
ramshackle adj. almost collapsing
rancid adj. tasting or smelling bad because of staleness
rancor bitter deep-seated ill will
random adj. done, chosen, etc without method or conscious choice; haphazard
rank n. position in a scale of responsibility, quality, social status, etc
rankle v. cause lasting bitterness or resentment
ransack v. ~ sth search (a place) thoroughly
rant v. ~ (derog ) speak loudly, violently or theatrically
rapacious adj. greedy, esp for money; grasping
rapport n. ~ sympathetic and harmonious relationship
rapt adj. ~ so intent or absorbed that one is unaware of other things; spellbound
rapture n. intense delight
rare adj. not often happening or seen, etc; unusual
rarefied adj. less dense than is normal; thin
rasp n. coarse file with rows of sharp points on its surface
raspy adj. rough; grating
ratify v. make (an agreement, a treaty, etc) officially valid, usu by signing it
ratiocination n. process of logical and methodical reasoning
ration n. fixed quantity, esp an official allowance of food, etc in times of shortage
rational adj. able to reason
rationale n. fundamental reason for or logical basis of sth
rationalize to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct
raucous adj. loud and hoarse; harsh-sounding
ravage v. damage badly; destroy
rave v. ~ talk wildly or furiously as if in a fever or mad
ravel v. ~ (sth) (up) (cause threads or fibres to) tangle and become knotted
ravenous adj. very hungry
ravine n. deep narrow steep-sided valley between mountains
raze to destroy to the ground:DEMOLISH
reactionary n, adj opposing (esp political) progress or reform
realm n. kingdom
reaper n. person who reaps
rebate n. amount by which a debt, tax, etc can be reduced; discount or partial refund
rebuff n. unkind or contemptuous refusal or rejection (of an offer, request, friendly gesture, etc); snub
rebuke v. ~ sb express sharp or severe disapproval to sb, esp officially; reprove sb
rebus n. puzzle in which a word or phrase has to be guessed from pictures or diagrams representing the letters or syllables in it
rebuttal n. act of rebutting or being rebutted
recalcitrant adj. resisting authority or discipline; disobedient
recant v. formally reject (a former opinion, belief, etc) as being wrong
recapitulate v. state again or summarize the main points of
recast v. ~ sth (as sth) put (sth written or spoken) into a new form
receptive adj. ~ able or quick to receive new ideas, suggestions, etc
recess n. (US also vacation) period of time when work or business is stopped, esp in Parliament, the lawcourts, etc
recession n. temporary decline in economic activity or prosperity
recidivism a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially :relapse into criminal behavior
recipient n. ~ person who receives sth
reciprocal adj. given and received in return; mutual
reciprocate v. give and receive (sth) in return; exchange (sth) mutually ;
recital n. public performance of music, dance, etc by a soloist or a small group
recite v. ~ (to sb) say (a poem, passage, etc) aloud from memory, esp to an audience
reckon v. ~ sb/sth among sth; ~ sb/sth as sth (not used in the continuous tenses ) be of the opinion or consider that sb/sth is as specified
recline v. lean or lie back in a horizontal or near-horizontal position
recluse n. person who lives alone and avoids other people
reconcile to make consistent or congruous
recondite adj. (of subjects) little known or understood; obscure
reconnaissance n. exploration or a survey of an area, esp for military purposes
recount v. ~ sth give a detailed account of sth; tell about sth
recourse n. possible source of help, eg in an emergency
recreant n, adj (person who is) cowardly, unfaithful or treacherous
recrimination n. accusation in response to an accusation from sb else; countercharge
rectify v. put (sth) right; correct
rectitude n. moral correctness or straightforwardness; honesty
recumbent adj. (esp of a person) lying down; reclining
recuperate v. ~ (fml ) recover from illness, exhaustion or loss, etc
recurrent adj. recurring often or regularly
redolent adj. ~ of/with sth smelling strongly of sth
redoubtable adj. to be feared and respected; formidable
redress v. put right (a wrong); compensate for (sth)
reduce v. ~ sth (to/by sb) make sth smaller in size, number, degree, price, etc
redundant adj. not needed; superfluous; unnecessary
reek n. strong bad smell
refectory n. dining-hall in a monastery, convent, college, school, etc ,
referendum n. referring of a political issue to a general vote by all the people of a country for a decision; vote thus taken
refraction n. refracting or being refracted .
refractory adj. difficult to control or discipline; wilful or unmanageable
refrain n. lines of a song or poem which are repeated, esp at the end of each verse
refulgent adj. gloriously bright; shining ;
refurbish v. make clean or bright again; redecorate
refuse n. waste or worthless material; rubbish
refute v. prove to be wrong
regal adj. of, like or fit for a king or queen; royal
regale v. ~ sb with sth amuse or entertain sb (with stories, jokes, etc)
regatta n. sporting event at which races are held between rowing-boats or yachts
regeneration spiritual rebirth
regent n. person appointed to rule a country while the monarch is too young, old, ill, etc, or is absent
regicide n. crime of killing a king
regime n. method or system of government
regimen n. set of rules about diet, exercise, etc aimed at improving sb's health and physical well-being
regiment n. (artillery and armour) unit divided into batteries or squadrons
rehabilitate v. restore to a normal life by retraining, medical treatment, etc, esp after imprisonment or illness
reimburse v. ~ sth ~ sb (for sth) (usu fml ) pay back to sb (money that he has spent, lost, etc); refund sth
reinstate v. ~ sb restore sb to a previous (esp important) position
reiterate v. say or do (sth) again or repeatedly
rejoinder n. what is said in reply; retort
rejuvenate v. restore youthful appearance, strength, etc to
relapse v. ~ fall back into a previous condition or a worse state after making an improvement
relegate banish; consign to inferior position
relent v. decide to be less strict, determined or harsh
relevant adj. ~ (to sth/sb)connected with what is being discussed, what is happening,what is being done, etc
relic n. trace or feature surviving from a past age and serving to remind people of it
religious adj. of religion
relinquish v. give up or cease to practise, feel, etc (sth); abandon
relish n. ~ great enjoyment of food, etc; zest
remediable adj. that can be remedied
reminiscence n. recalling of past events and experiences; reminiscing ;
reminiscent adj. ~ of sb/sth reminding one of or suggesting sb/sth
remiss adj. ~ (fml ) careless of one's duty; lax
remission n. pardoning or forgiveness of sins by God
remit v. (fml ) refrain from inflicting (a punishment, etc)
remittance n. remitting of money
remnant n. small remaining quantity or part or number of things or people
remonstrance n. remonstrating; protest ;
remonstrate v. ~ with sb; ~ against sth make a protest or complaint about sb/sth
remorse n. ~ sense of deep and bitter regret for having done sth wrong
remote adj. ~ (from sth) far away from other communities, houses, etc; isolated
remunerative adj. profitable
rend v. (arch or fml ) tear (sth) apart forcibly; split
render v. ~ sth (for sth); ~ sth (to sb) give sth in return or exchange, or as sth which is due
rendezvous n. ~ (with sb) (place chosen for a) meeting at an agreed time
rendition n. way in which a dramatic role or piece of music, etc is performed; rendering
renegade n. person that deserts a cause, political party, religious group, etc
renege v. ~ (on sth) fail to keep a promise, one's word, etc
renounce v. agree to give up ownership or possession of (sth), esp formally
renovate v. restore to good condition
renown n. fame or distinction
rent n. regular payment made for the use of land, premises, a telephone, machinery, etc; sum paid in this way
reparable adj. (of a loss, etc) that can be made good ,
reparation n. ~ (for sth) compensating for damage; making amends for loss
repartee n. sharp clever retorts
repast meal
repeal v. withdraw officially; revoke ;
repel v. drive (sb/sth) back or away; repulse
repellent adj. ~ arousing distaste or disgust; repulsive
repercussion n. indirect effect or result of an event, etc; consequence
repertoire n. all the plays, songs, pieces, etc which a company, actor, musician, etc knows and is prepared to perform
repine v. ~ (fml ) feel or show discontent; fret
replenish v. ~ sth fill sth again
replete adj. ~ (fml ) well-fed or full; gorged
replica n. exact copy, esp one made by an artist of one of his own pictures, etc
replicate v. be or make a copy of (sth); reproduce
repose v. rest; lie
repository n. place where things are stored or may be found, esp a warehouse or museum
reprehensible adjdeserving to be reprehended
repress v. restrain or suppress (an impulse); check
reprieve v. postpone or cancel a punishment for (sb), esp the death sentence
reprimand v. ~ sb rebuke sb (for a fault, etc), esp officially
reprisal n. returning an injury, esp political or military, done to oneself; retaliation
reprise recurrent action; musical repetition; repeat performance
reproach v. ~ sb/oneself (for sth) criticize sb/oneself, esp for failing to do sth
reprobate adj. n immoral or unprincipled (person)
reprobation severe disapproval
reprove v. ~ sb (fml ) blame or rebuke sb; censure
repudiate v. refuse to have any more to do with (sb); disown ;
repugnance n. ~ strong aversion or disgust
repulse v. drive back (an attacker or an attack) by fighting; repel ;
repulsion n. ~ feeling of loathing or aversion; disgust
reputable adj. having a good reputation; respected or trustworthy
reputed adj. generally said or considered to be sth/sb
requiem n. (also requiem `mass) special mass for the repose of the soul of a dead person
requisite adj. required by circumstances or necessary for success
requisition n. ~ (for sth) official, usu written, demand for (esp) the use of property or materials by an army in wartime or by certain people in an emergency
requite v. ~ sth (with sth) give sth in return for sth else; repay sth
rescind v. cancel or repeal (a law, contract, etc); annul
resentment n. resenting sb/sth
reserve v. ~ sth put aside or keep sth for a later occasion or special use
residual adj. left over as a residue(1); remaining
residue n. ~ (of sth) what remains after a part or quantity is taken or used
resign v. ~ give up (one's job, position, etc)
resignation n. ~ (instance of) resigning
resilient adj. springing back to its original form after being bent, stretched, crushed, etc; springy ,
resolution n. quality of being resolute or firm; determination
resolve v. ~ on/upon/against sth/doing sth decide firmly; determine
resonant adj. continuing to echo; resounding
resort v. ~ to sth make use of sth for help; adopt sth as an expedient
resound v. ~ (through/throughout sth) (of a sound, voice, etc) fill a place with sound; produce echoes
resourceful adj. clever at finding ways of doing things
respiration n. (single act of) breathing air
respite n. ~ interval of rest or relief
resplendent adj. ~ (fml ) brilliant with colour or decorations; splendid
responsiveness n.
restitution n. ~ (fml ) restoration of a thing to its proper owner or original state
restive adj. restless or uneasy
restraint n. restraining or being restrained
resumption n. (instance of) resuming (resume 1)
resurge (rare)
resurgent adj. rising or reviving after destruction, defeat, disappearance, etc
resurrect v. bring (sb) back to life again
resuscitate v. bring (sb/sth) back to consciousness
retain v. keep (sth) in one's possession or use
retaliate v. ~ repay an injury, insult, etc with a similar one
retard v. make (sth) slow or late
retentive adj. having the ability to remember facts, impressions, etc ,
reticent adj. ~ not revealing one's thoughts or feelings easily; reserved
retinue n. group of attendants accompanying an important person
retiring adj. avoiding society; shy
retort v. make a quick, witty or angry reply, esp to an accusation or challenge
retract v. withdraw (a statement, charge, etc)
retraction n. retracting
retrench v. make economies or reduce expenses
retribution n. ~ (fml ) deserved punishment or compensation for injury, etc
retrieve v. ~ sth (esp fml ) get possession of sth again
retroactive adj. effective from a past date
retrograde adj. going backwards
retrospective adj. looking back on the past
revelry n. noisy celebrations; revels
reverberate v. ~ echo or resound repeatedly
reverend adj. deserving to be treated with respect, esp because of age, etc ,
reverent adj. feeling or showing reverence
reverie n. idle and pleasant thoughts
revert v. ~ to sth return to (a former state or condition)
revile v. criticize (sb/sth), in angry and abusive language ,
revoke v. withdraw or cancel (a decree, permit, etc)
revulsion n. ~ feeling of disgust or horror
rhapsodize recite a rhapsody ; say (something) with great enthusiasm
rhapsody n. (often in titles ) romantic composition in irregular form
rhetoric n. using language impressively or persuasively, esp in public speaking
ribald adj. humorous in a vulgar, obscene or disrespectful way
rickety adj. weak or shaky, esp in the joints; likely to fall or collapse
riddle n. puzzling question, statement or description, esp one intended to test the cleverness of those wishing to solve it
rider n. person who rides a horse, bicycle, etc
rife adj. (esp of bad things) widespread; common
rift n. split, crack, break, etc
rig v. ~ sth (with sth) fit (a ship or boat) with masts, spars, ropes, sails, etc
righteous adj. doing what is morally right
rightful adj. just, proper or legal
rigid adj. stiff; not bending or yielding
rigor severity
rile v. annoy (sb); irritate
rip v. divide or make a hole in (sth) by pulling sharply
rivet n. metal pin or bolt for fastening twopieces of metal together, its headless end being hammered or pressed flat to prevent slipping
riveting adj. that holds the attention; enthralling
rivulet n. small stream
robust adj. vigorous; healthy and strong
rococo adj. of a style of decorationin furniture, architecture, music, etc with much elaboratedecoration, common in Europe in the 18th century 18
roil to stir up:DISTURB, DISORDER
rolling having gentle rising and falling slopes; undulating
romp v. play about together in a lively way, running, jumping, etc
rooster n. = cock 1
roseate adj. deep pink
roster n. (esp in the army, etc) list of names showing duties to be performed and the times at which those named are to perform them
rostrum n. raised platform from which public speeches are made
rote n. by `rote by heart; from memory, without thinking of the meaning
rotund adj. (of a person) rounded; plump; fat
rotunda n. type of round building or hall, esp one with a domed roof
rotundity n. state of being rotund
rousing adj. vigorous; giving encouragement
rout n. utter defeat
rubble n. bits of broken stone, rock or bricks
rubric n. words put as a heading, esp to show or explain how sth should be done, etc
ruddy adj. (approv ) (of a person's face) having a fresh healthy colour
rudimentary adj. existing in an imperfect or undeveloped form
rue n. type of evergreen shrub with bitter leaves formerly used in medicine
rueful adj. showing or feeling good-humoured regret
ruffian n. violent lawless man
rumble v. make a deep heavy continuous sound
ruminant n, adj that chews the cud, eg a cow
ruminate v. ~ think deeply; meditate; ponder
rummage v. ~ (for sth); ~ (about/around) turn things over or disarrange them while searching for sth
run-down n. act of running down (an industry, a company, etc); reduction of the size of an industry, etc
runic adj. of runes; written in or inscribed with runes
ruse n. deceitful way of doing sth or getting sth; trick
rustic adj. typical of the country or country people
rusticate v. send (a student) away from university temporarily, as a punishment
rustle v. make a dry light sound, esp by friction or rubbing together
ruthless adj. having or showing no pity or compassion; cruel