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ichthyology study of fish
icon n. painting, carving, etc of a holy person, itself regarded as sacred
iconoclastic attacking cherished beliefs
ideology n. ideas that form the basis of an economic or political theory or that are held by a particular group or person
idiom n. phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual words and which must be learnt as a whole unit ; , give way, a change of heart, be hard put to it
idiosyncrasy n. person's particular way of thinking, behaving, etc that is clearly different from that of others
idiosyncratic a peculiarity of constitution or temperament:an individualizingcharacteristic or quality
idle adj. doing or having no work; not employed
idolatry n. worship of idols
idyll n. short piece of poetry or prose that describes a happy and peaceful scene or event, esp of country life
idyllic adj. like an idyll; peaceful and pleasant
igneous adj. (of rocks) formed by molten matter (esp from volcanoes) that has become solid
ignite v. catch fire
ignoble adj. not honourable in character or purpose; shameful
ignominious adj. shameful or humiliating; causing disgrace
ignominy shame or humiliation; disgrace
illicit adj. not allowed by law; illegal
illimitable infinite
illuminate v. provide with light
illusion n. false idea, belief or impression; delusion
illusive adjs. based on illusion; deceptive
illusory based on or producing illusion:DECEPTIVE
imbalance n. lack of balance or proportion; inequality
imbecility n. stupidity
imbibe v. drink (sth, esp alcohol)
imbroglio n. complicated, confused or embarrassing situation, esp a political or an emotional one ,
imbue v. ~ sb/sth with sth fill or inspire sb/sth with (feelings, etc)
immaculate adj. perfectly clean and tidy; spotless
imminent adj. about to happen; likely to happen very soon
immobility n. state of being immobile
immolate v. kill (sb) as a sacrifice
immune adj. ~ that cannot be harmed by a disease or illness, either because of inoculation or through natural resistance
immure v. imprison (sb); shut in
immutable adj. that cannot be changed; that will never change
impair v. weaken or damage
impale v. ~ sb/sth pierce sb/sth with a sharp-pointed object
impalpable adj. that cannot be touched or felt physically
impart v. ~ sth (to sth) give (a quality) to sth
impartial adj. not favouring one person or thing more than another; fair or neutral
impassable adj. impossible to travel on or over
impasse n. difficult position or situation from which there is no way out; deadlock
impassioned adj. showingstrong deep feeling
impassive adj. showing no sign of feeling
impeach v. ~ sb accuse (a public official or politician) of committing a serious crime, esp one against the State
impeccable adj. free from mistakes; excellent or faultless
impecunious adj. having little or no money
impede v. hinder or obstruct the progress or movement of
impediment n. ~ person or thing that hinders or obstructs the progress or movement of sth
impel v. ~ sb (to sth) force or urge sb to do sth
impending adj. about to happen; imminent
impenetrable adj. ~ that cannot be entered, passed through, etc
impenitent adj. not sorry for or ashamed of one's misdoings; not penitent;
imperative adj. very urgent or important; needing immediateattention
imperceptible adj. that cannot be noticed or felt because so small, slight or gradual
imperial adj. of an empire or its ruler(s)
imperil v. (fml ) put (sb/sth) in danger; endanger
imperious adj. proud and arrogant; domineering; expecting obedience
impermeable adj. not allowing a liquid to pass through
impersonal adj. not influenced by, showing or involving human feelings
impertinent adj. ~ not respectful; rude
imperturbable adj. not easily troubled or worried; calm
impervious adj. ~ not allowing water, gas, etc to pass through
impetuous adj. acting or done quickly and with little thought or care; rash or impulsive
impetus n. ~ thing that encourages a process to develop more quickly
impiety n. lack of respect, esp for God and religion ,
impinge v. ~ on/upon sth have an effect on sth
impious adj. showing a lack of respect, esp for God and religion; not pious ,
implacable adj. that cannot be changed or satisfied
implausible adj. unlikely to be true; not convincing
implement n. tool or instrument
implicate v. ~ sb show that sb is involved in sth, esp a crime
implication n. ~ thing that is suggested or implied; thingnot openly stated
implicit adj. ~ implied, but not expressed directly; not explicit
implode v. burst or collapse inwards
implore v. ask or beg earnestly; beseech
imply v. suggest (sth) indirectly rather than state it directly; hint
impolitic adj. not wise; not politic
imponderable adj. of which the effect or importance cannot be measured or estimated
import v. ~ sth ~ sth (into...) bring (goods, ideas, etc) from a foreign country into one's own country
importunate adj. persistent, esp in making requests or demands
importune v. ~ sb (for sth) ask sb persistently (for sth), usu in an annoying manner; beg or demand insistently
imposture n. (action of) deliberately deceiving by pretending to be sb else
impotent adj. unable to take effective action; powerless or helpless
impoverish v. make poor
imprecation n. oath or curse
impregnable adj. so strong and well-constructed that it cannot be entered orcaptured
impregnate v. ~ sth cause (one substance) to be filled in every part with another substance; saturate sth
impromptu adj. adv without preparation, rehearsal or thought in advance
impropriety n. indecent or unsuitable behaviour; dishonest practice
improvident adj. not preparing for future needs; wasteful
improvise v. compose or play (music), speak or act without previous preparation
imprudent adj. not wise or discreet; not prudent
impudence n. being impudent; impudent behaviour or speech
impugn v. express doubts about (sth)
impuissance n. lack of power or effectiveness; weakness
impunity n. with impunity with freedom from punishment or injury
impute v. ~ sth to sb/sthput the responsibility for sth on sb/sth; attributesth to sb/sth ;
inadvertently adv. by accident; unintentionally
inalienable adj. that cannot be taken away
inamorata masc. inamorato
inane adj. without meaning; silly or stupid
inanimate adj. not alive, esp in the way that humans and animals are
inarticulate adj. unable to express one's words, ideas or feelings clearly
inaugurate v. ~ sb introduce (a new public official or leader) at a special ceremony
incandescent adj. glowing or shining when heated
incantation n. series of words used as a magic spell or charm
incapacitate v. ~ sb make sb unable (to do sth); weaken or disable sb
incarcerate v. ~ sb (fml ) put sb in prison
incarnate adj. in the physical form of a human being
incarnation n. person that prominently displays a particular quality
incendiary adj. designed to set buildings, etc on fire
incense n. substance that produces a pleasant smell when burnt, used esp in religious ceremonies
incentive n. ~ thing that encourages sb to do sth; stimulus
inception n. start or beginning of sth
incessant adj. not stopping; continual
inchoate adj. just begun and therefore not fully formed or developed
incidence n. ~ of sth extent to which sth happens or has an effect
incident n. event or happening,often of minor importance
incidental adj. small and relatively unimportant; minor
incinerate v. destroy completely by burning; burn to ashes ;
incipient adj. in its early stages; beginning to happen
incisive adj. clear and precise; direct or sharp
incite v. ~ sb urge or persuade sb to do sth by making him very angry or excited
inclement adj. cold and stormy; bad
incline v. ~ towards sth lean or slope in the direction of sth
inclined adj. ~ wanting to behave in a particular way; disposed
inclusive adj. ~ including sth; including much or all
incognito adj. , adv with one's true identity hidden; in disguise
incoherent adj. not clear or logical
incommodious adj. uncomfortable, usu because too small; inconvenient;
incompatible adj. ~ not able to live or work happily with sb
incongruity n. state of being incongruous
inconsequential adj. trivial or irrelevant; not important
inconsistency n. quality of being inconsistent
incontinent adj. unable to control the bladder or bowels in passing waste matter from the body
incontrovertible adj. so obvious and certain that it cannot be disputed or denied
incorporate v. ~ sth (in/into sth) make sth part of a whole; include
incorporeal adj. without a body or material form
incorrigible adj. that cannot be corrected or improved
incredulity a tendency to disbelief
incredulous adj. not willing or able to believe; showing disbelief
increment n. increase, esp in money paid as a salary; added amount
incriminate v. make appear to be guilty of wrongdoing
incrustation n. formation of a hard outer covering; encrusting ;
incubate v. keep (eggs) warm, usu by sitting on them, until they hatch
incubus n. male evil spirit formerly supposed to have sex with a sleeping woman
inculcate v. ~ sth ~ sb with sth (fml ) fix (ideas, principles, etc) firmly in sb's mind, esp by repetition
incumbent adj. ~ on/upon sb necessary as part of sb's duty
incur v. cause oneself to suffer (sth bad); bring upon oneself
incursion n. ~ (into/on/upon sth) sudden attack on or invasion of a place (not usu made in order to occupy it permanently)
indecision n. ~ state of being unable to decide; hesitation
indecisive adj. not final or conclusive
indefatigable adj. never giving up or stopping in spite of tiredness or difficulty; tireless
indelible adj. that cannot be rubbed out or removed
indemnify v. ~ sb (from/against sth) (law or commerce ) promise to compensate sb for any harm he may suffer
indentation n. indenting or being indented
indenture v. ~ sb contract sb to work as an apprentice
indeterminate adj. not fixed or exact; vague; indefinite
indicative adj. stating a fact or asking questions of fact
indices pl of index
indict v. ~ sb (law ) accuse sb officially (of sth); charge sb
indifferent adj. ~ having no interest in sb/sth; neither for nor against sb/sth; not caring about sb/sth
indigence n. poverty
indigenous adj. ~ (fml ) belonging naturally (to a place); native
indigent adj. poor
indignation n. ~ (at/over/about sth) anger caused by sth thought to be unjust, unfair, etc
indignity n. rude or unworthy treatment causing shame or loss of respect
indiscriminate adj. ~ (in sth) acting without careful judgement
indisputable adj. that cannot be disputed or denied
indissoluble adj. that cannot be dissolved or broken up; firm and lasting
indite write; compose
indoctrinate v. ~ sb (usu derog ) cause sb to have (a particular set of beliefs), esp by teaching which excludes any other points of view
indolence laziness
indolent adj. lazy; inactive ;
indomitable adj. that cannot be subdued or defeated; unyielding
indubitable adj. that cannot be doubted; without doubt ;
induce v. persuade or influence (sb) to do sth
induct v. ~ sb install sb formally or with ceremony in a position or an office; admit sb as a member of sth
inductive adj. based on induction
indulge v. ~ oneself/sb (with sth) allow oneself/sb to have whatever one/he likes or wants
indulgent adj. inclined to indulge
industrious adj. hard-working; diligent ;
inebriate adj. n habitually drunk (person)
inebriated adj. drunk; intoxicated
inebriety habitual intoxication
ineffable adj. too great to be described in words
ineffectual adj. lacking confidence and unable to get things done; without effect
ineluctable adj. that cannot be escaped from
inept adj. ~ (at sth/doing sth) completely unskilful (at sth)
inequity n. injustice or unfairness
inerrancy (christianity) exemption from error
inert adj. without power to move or act
inertia n. lack of vigour; lethargy
inestimable adj. too great, precious, etc to be estimated
inevitable adj. that cannot be avoided; that is sure to happen
inexorable adj. continuing unstoppably; relentless
inextricable adj. so closely linked that separation is impossible
infallible adj. incapable of making mistakes or doing wrong
infamous adj. ~ well-known as being wicked or immoral; notorious
infantile adj. of infants or infancy
infer v. ~ sth (from sth) reach (an opinion) from facts or reasoning; conclude sth
infernal adj. of hell
infest To be present in such numbers as to be a source of annoyance, trouble, or danger.
infidel n. person with no belief in a religion, esp in what is considered to be the true religion ,
infiltrate v. ~ (into sth) (of liquids, gases, etc) pass slowly by filtering; penetrate
infinitesimal adj. extremelysmall
infirmity n. weakness
inflated adj. filled with air, gas, etc
influx n. ~ arrival of people or things, esp suddenly and in large numbers or quantities
infraction n. breaking of a rule, law, etc ,
infringe v. break (a rule, an agreement, etc)
ingenious adj. ~ (at sth/doing sth) (of a person) clever at finding new or simple solutions for complex problems
ingenue n. simple innocent girl, esp as portrayed in plays, films, etc
ingenuous adj. not attempting to deceive or conceal; open; innocent
ingrained adj. deeply fixed; thorough
ingrate ungrateful person
ingratiate to become popular with
inherent adj. ~ existing as a natural or permanent feature or quality of sb/sth
inhibit v. ~ sb prevent sb from doing sth that should be natural or easy to do
inhibited adj. (of people) unable to relax or express one's feelings in a natural and spontaneous way
inimical adj. ~ (fml ) unfriendly; hostile
inimitable adj. impossible to imitate; too good, clever, etc to imitate
iniquitous adj. very wicked or unjust
initiate v. put (a scheme, etc) into operation; cause (sth) to begin
injurious adj. ~ (to sb/sth) causing or likely to cause injury; harmful
inkling n. ~ slight knowledge (of sth secret or not previously known); hint
innate adj. in one's nature; possessed from birth
innocuous adj. causing no harm
innovation n. innovating
innuendo n. (derog ) indirect reference (usu suggesting sth bad or discreditable about sb)
inopportune adj. not appropriate or convenient
inordinate adj. beyond proper or normal limits; excessive
inquisitive adj. fond of inquiring into other people's affairs
inquisitor n. investigator, esp an officer of the Inquisition
inroad n. ~ (into sth) sudden attack on another's territory; raid
insalubrious adj. unhealthy
insatiable adj. ~ that cannot be satisfied; very greedy
inscrutable adj. that cannot be understood or known; mysterious
insensate adj. without the power to feel or experience
insensible adj. unconscious as the result of injury, illness, etc
insidious adj. spreading or acting gradually and unnoticed but with harmful effects
insightful adj. showing insight
insinuate v. ~ sth suggest sth (to sb) unpleasantly and indirectly
insipid adj. having almost no taste or flavour
insolence n. ~ being insolent
insolvent adj. unable to pay debts; bankrupt ;
insomnia n. inability to sleep
insouciant lighthearted unconcern:NONCHALANCE
instigate v. cause to begin or happen; initiate
institute n. society or organization for a special (usu social, professional or educational) purpose
institution the act of instituting
institutionalize to subject to the deleterious effects of confinement in an institution
insubordinate adj. disobedient; rebellious ;
insubordination n. being insubordinate
insubstantial adj. not solid or real; imaginary
insularity n. state of being insular
insuperable adj. (of difficulties) that cannot be overcome
insurgent adj. in revolt; rebellious
insurmountable adj. (of obstacles, difficulties, etc) that cannot be overcome
insurrection n. sudden,usu violent, action taken by the population to try to remove the government
intangible adj. that cannot be clearly or definitely understood or grasped; indefinable
integral adj. ~ necessary for completeness
integrate v. ~ sth (into sth); ~ A and B/~ A with B combine sth in such a way that it becomes fully a part of sth else
integrity n. quality of being honest and morally upright
intellect n. power of the mind to reason and acquire knowledge
intelligentsia n. the intelligentsia those people within a community who areof high intelligence and concern themselves with mattersof culture, learning, etc; intellectuals as a class ;
inter v. (fml ) put (a corpse) in a grave or tomb; bury
interdict v. (esp law ) prohibit (an action); forbid the use of (sth) ;
interim n. in the interimduring the time that comes between; meantime
interjection n. word or phrase used as an exclamation (eg Oh!, Hurray! or For goodness sake!) , !!!
interloper n. person who is present in a place where he does not belong, interferes in sth which is not his affair, etc; intruder
intermediary n. ~ person who acts as a means of communication between two or more others
interminable adj. going on too long, and usu therefore annoying or boring
intermittent adj. continually stopping and then starting again; not constant
internecine adj. causing destruction to both sides
interpolate v. ~ sth (fml ) make (a remark, etc) which interrupts a conversation, speech, etc
interregnum n. period when a state has no normal or lawful ruler, esp at the end of a sovereign's reign and before the appointment of a successor
interrogate v. ~ sb question sb aggressively or closely and for a long time
intersperse v. ~ B among/between/in/throughout A; ~ A with B vary sth by placing other things at irregular intervals among it
interstice n. ~ (of/between/in sth) (fml ) very small gap or crack
intervene v. (of time) come or be between
intimate adj. ~ having or being a very close and friendly relationship
intimidate v. ~ sb frighten sb (in order to make him do sth)
intolerant adj. not tolerant
intoxicate To make drunk.
intractable adj. not easily controlled or dealt with; hard to manage
intransigence state of stubborn; unwillingness to compromise
intrepid adj. fearless; brave
intrigue v. ~ (against sb) make and carry out secret plans or plots to do sth bad
intrinsic adj. belonging naturally; existing within, not coming from outside
intrinsically adv: He is not intrinsically bad
introspective adj. inclined to introspect
introvert n. person who is more interested in his own thoughts and feelings than in things outside himself, and is often shy and unwilling to speak or join in activities with others
intrude v. ~ on/upon sb/sth; ~ (oneself/sth) into sth (esp fml ) put (oneself/sth) into a place or situation where one/it is unwelcome or unsuitable
intuition n. (power of) understanding things (eg a situation, sb's feelings) immediately, without the need for conscious reasoning or study
inundate v. ~ sth(fml ) cover sth with water by overflowing; flood
inured accustomed to/adapted
invalid adj. not properly based or able to be upheld by reasoning
invalidate v. make invalid
invective n. violent attack in words; abusive language
inveigh v. ~ against sb/sth attack sb or sth violently in words
inveigle v. ~ sb into sth/doing sth persuade sb to go somewhere or do sth by using flattery and deception
inverse adj. reversed in position, direction or relation
invert v. put upside down or in the opposite order, position or arrangement
inveterate adj. (of bad feelings, habits, etc) that have lasted a long time and seem likely to continue
invidious adj. likely to cause resentment or unpopularity
invincible adj. too strong to be overcome or defeated
inviolable adj. that must not be violated or dishonoured
invocation => invoke
invoke v. use (sth) as a reason for one's action
invulnerable adj. ~ that cannot be wounded, hurt or damaged by attack
iota n. the Greek letter I, i I, i
irascible adj. (of a person) easily made angry
irate adj. angry
iridescent adj. showing colours like those of the rainbow
irksome adj. tiresome; annoying
ironic adj. using or expressing irony; full of irony
irony n. expression of one's meaning by saying the direct opposite of one's thoughts in order to be emphatic, amusing, sarcastic, etc
irreconcilable adj. ~ (with sb/sth) (of people) that cannot be reconciled
irrefutable adj. that cannot be proved false
irrelevant adj. ~ not connected (with sth); not relevant (to sth)
irremediable adj. that cannot be remedied or corrected
irreparable adj. that cannot be put right, restored or repaired
irrepressible adj. that cannot be held back or controlled
irreproachable adj. freefrom blame or fault
irresolute adj. feeling or showing uncertainty; hesitating ;
irretrievable adj. that cannot be retrieved or remedied
irreverence The quality showing or expressing a deficiency of veneration, especially for sacred things.
irreverent adj. feeling or showing no respect for sacred things
irrevocable adj. that cannot be changed or revoked; final
isotope n. one of two or more forms of a chemical element with different atomic weight and different nuclear properties but the same chemical properties
isthmus n. narrow strip of land joining two larger areas of land that would otherwise be separated by water
itinerant adj. travelling from place to place
itinerary n. plan for, or record of, a journey; route

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