abase oneself, lower oneself, in dignity; degrade oneself ;
abash to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of:disconcert
abate make or become less
abbreviate shorten (a word, phrase, etc), esp by omitting letters
abdicate resign from or formally renounce the throne
aberrant not following the normal or correct way
aberration deviation from what is accepted as normal or right
abet help or encourage sb to commit an offence or do sth wrong
abeyance be in abeyance; fall/go into abeyance (of a right, rule, problem, etc) be suspended temporarily; not be in force or use for a time
abhor feel hatred and disgust for (sb/sth); detest
abide in negative sentences or questions can/could) tolerate ; endure; bear
abject wretched; hopeless
abjure promise or swear to give up (a claim, an opinion, a belief, etc); renounce formally
ablution (fml or joc ) ceremonial washing of the body, hands, sacred vessels, etc
abnegation denial or renunciation (of a doctrine)
abode house; home
abolish end the existence of
abominable causing disgust; detestable
abominate feel hatred or disgust for (sth/sb); detest; loathe
aboriginal inhabiting a land from a very early period, esp before the arrival of colonists
abortive coming to nothing; unsuccessful
abrasive that scrapes or rubs sth away; rough
abridge make shorter, esp by using fewer words; condense
abrogate cancel, repeal or annul (sth)
abscission The act of cutting off, as in a surgical operation.
abscond go away suddenly and secretly, esp in order to avoid arrest
absolute complete; total
absolve sb (fml esp law , ) clear sb (of guilt); declare sb free (from blame, a promise, a duty, etc)
abstain keep oneself from doing or enjoying sth, esp from taking alcoholic drinks; refrain ;
abstemious not taking much food or drink; not self-indulgent; moderate
abstinence abstaining, esp from food or alcoholic drinks
abstract existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence
abstruse difficult to understand
abusive criticizing harshly and rudely; insulting
abut on/against sth (of land or a building) have a common boundary or side with sth; adjoin sth
abysmal extremely bad
abyss hole so deep that it seems to have no bottom
academic of schools, colleges, etc
accede take office
accelerate make move faster or happen earlier; increase the speed of
accessible that can be reached, used, etc
accessory thing that is a useful or decorative extra but that is not essential; minor fitting or attachment
acclaim welcome (sb/sth) with shouts of approval; applaud loudly
acclimate to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
acclivity upward slope
accolade praise; approval
accommodate provide lodging or room for
accomplice person who helps another to do sth wicked or illegal
accord peace treaty; agreement
accost approach and speak to (sb) boldly
accoutre equip
accretion growth or increase by means of gradual additions
accrue come as a natural increase or advantage, esp financial; accumulate
acerbity Sourness of taste, character, or tone.
acetic of, containing, producing, or derived from acetic acid or vinegar
acidulous rather sharp or bitter in taste or manner
acknowledge accept the truth of admit (sth)
acme highest stage of development; point of perfection
acne inflammation of the oil-glands of the skin, producing red pimples on the face and neck
acoustics qualities of a room, hall, etc that make it good or bad for carrying sound
acquiesce accept sth without protest; offer no opposition (to a plan, conclusion, etc)
acquittal judgement that a person is not guilty of the crime with which he has been charged
acrid having a strongly bitter smell or taste
acrimonious bitter
acrophobia "acro'phobic adjectiv
actuarial calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
actuary expert who calculates insurance risks and premiums
actuate make (a machine, an electrical device, etc) move or work; make (a process) begin , ;
acuity (esp of thought or the senses) sharpness; acuteness
acumen ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly; shrewdness
acute very great; severe
adage traditional saying; proverb ;
adamant firmly or stubbornly determined; unwilling to be persuaded
adapt make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth
addendum thing that is to be added
addiction condition of taking drugs, etc habitually and being unable to stop doing so without suffering adverse effects
addle confuse (sth/sb); muddle
address details of where a person lives, works or can be found, and where letters, etc may be delivered
adept expert or skilful in (doing) sth
adhere remain attached (to sth); stick (as if) by means of glue or suction
adherent supporter of a party or doctrine
adjacent having a common endpoint or border also immediately preceding or following
adjoin be next or nearest to and joined with
adjourn stop (a meeting, etc) for a time; postpone
adjunct thing that is added or attached to sth else but is less important and not essential
adjuration solemn urging
adjutant army officer responsible for administrative work in a battalion
admonish to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner
adore love deeply and respect (sb) highly
adorn oneself add beauty or ornament to sth/sb/oneself
adroit skilful; clever
adulation excessive admiration or praise; flattery
adulterate make poorer in quality by adding another substance
Advent the ~ of sth/sb the approach or arrival of
adventitious not planned; accidental
adversary opponent in a contest; enemy
adverse not favourable; contrary
adversity unfavourable conditions; trouble
advert advertisement
advocacy giving of support (to a cause, etc)
advocate speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support
aegis under the aegis of sb/sth with the protection or support of sb/sth, esp a public institution
aerie eyrie
aesthetic concerned with beauty and the appreciation of beauty
affable polite and friendly
affected not natural or genuine; pretended; artificial
affidavit written statement that can be used as evidence in court, made by sb who swears that it is true
affiliation affiliating or being affiliated
affinity structural resemblance or similarity of character; relationship
affirmation affirming
affix stick, fasten or attach sth
affliction pain; suffering; distress
affluence abundance of money, goods or property; wealth
affront deliberately insulting or disrespectful remark, action, etc, esp in public
afterlife existence that is thought by some to follow death
agape (of the mouth) wide open, esp with wonder
agenda matters of business to be discussed at a meeting, etc
agglomeration action of agglomerating
aggrandize to make appear great or greater:praise highly
aggregate be formed or bring sb into an assembled group or amount
aghast filled with horror or amazement
agility nimbleness
agitate cause anxiety to (a person, his feelings, etc); disturb; excite
agnostic n. person who believes that nothing can be known about the existence of God or of anything except material things
agog eager; excited
agrarian of land
airy having plenty of fresh air moving about; well-ventilated
alacrity prompt and eager readiness
alchemy medieval form of chemistry, the chief aim of which was to discover how to turn ordinary metals into gold ,
alcove small space in a room, etc formed by part of the wall being set back; recess
alias name by which a person is called at other times or in other places; false name
alienate cause sb to become unfriendly or indifferent; estrange sb
alimentary of food and digestion
alimony allowance that a court may order a man to pay to his wife or former wife before or after a legal separation or divorce
allay make less; relieve
allege state as a fact but without proof; give as an argument or excuse
allegiance support of or loyalty to a government, ruler, cause, etc
allegory story, painting or description in which the characters and events are meant as symbols of purity, truth, patience, etc ,
alleviate make less severe; ease
alliteration occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words in succession, as in sing a song of sixpence or as thick as thieves , sing a song of sixpence as thick as thieves
allocate allot or assign sth (to sb/sth) for a special purpose
alloy metal formed of a mixture of metals or of metal and another substance
allude mention sb/sth briefly or indirectly
allure tempt or attract (sb) by the expectation of gaining sth
allusion indirect reference
alluvial made of sand, earth, etc left by rivers or floods, esp in a delta
alms money, clothes, food, etc given to poor people
aloft up in the air; overhead
aloof cool and remote in character; unconcerned
altercation (act of) quarrelling or arguing noisily
altruistic unselfish
amalgam alloy of mercury with another metal
amalgamate (cause people or things to) combine or unite
amass gather together or collect (sth), esp in large quantities
amazon tall strong athletic woman
ambidextrous able to use the left hand or the right hand equally well
ambience environment; atmosphere of a place
ambiguous having more than one possible meaning
ambivalence the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes
amble ride or walk at a slow, leisurely pace
ambrosia food of the gods
ambulatory walking
ambush waiting in a hidden position to make a surprise attack
ameliorate (cause sth to) become better
amenable (of people) willing to be influenced or controlled (by sth)
amend correct an error in (sth); make minor improvements in; change slightly
amenities [ amenity: ] [often pl] a useful or pleasant facility or service
amiable showing and inspiring friendliness; pleasant and good-tempered
amicable showing friendliness; without hostility
amiss adv wrong(ly); inappropriate(ly)
amity friendly relationship between people or countries
amnesia partial or total loss of memory
amnesty general pardon, esp for offences against the State
amok run amok rush about in a wild and angry frenzy
amoral not based on moral standards; not following any moral rules ;
amorous readily showing or feeling love; relating to love
amorphous having no definite shape or form; not organized
amphibian animal able to live both on land and in water
amphitheater oval building with tiers of seats
ample enough
amplify increase (sth) in size or strength
amputate cut off by surgical operation
amulet piece of jewellery, etc worn as a charm1(
anachronism mistake of placing sth in the wrong historical period
analgesia loss of ability to feel pain while still conscious
analgesic substance that relieves pain
analogous partially similar or parallel; offering an analogy
analogy partial similarity between two things that are compared
anarchist person who believes in anarchism
anarchy absence of government or control in society; lawlessness
anathema detested person or thing
anathematize declare to be evil or anathema
ancestry line of ancestors
anchor heavy metal device attached to a rope, chain, etc and used to moor a ship or boat to the sea-bottom or a balloon to the ground
ancillary helping in a subsidiary way
anecdote n. short, interesting or amusing story about a real person or event ,
anemia condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles
anesthetic = anaesthesia, anaesthetic
anguish n. severe physical or mental pain
angular adj. having angles or sharp corners
animadversion n. criticism
animated adj. lively
animosity n. ~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) strong dislike or of hostility
animus n. animosity shown in speech or action
annals n. story of events year by year; historical records
anneal v. make tough by cooling slowly after heating
annex v. take possession of
annihilate v. destroy completely
annotate v. add notes to giving explanation or comment
annuity n. fixed sum of money paid to sb yearly, usu for the remaining part of his lifetime
annul v. declare (sth) no longer valid; abolish; cancel
anodyne n, adj that can relieve pain
anoint v. ~ sb apply oil or ointment to sb (esp as a religious ceremony)
anomalous adj. different from what is normal; irregular
anomaly n. anomalous thing; irregularity
anonymity n. state of being anonymous
antagonism n~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) active opposition or hostility, esp between two people
antagonistic adj. ~ showing or feeling antagonism; hostile
antecede be earlier in time; go back further
antecedents ancestr
antediluvian adj. of the time before Noah's Flood
anthem n. short musical composition, usu for a choir and an organ, to be sung in religious services, often with words taken from the Bible ,
anthology n. collection of poems or pieces of prose on the same subject or by the same writer
anthropoid adj. man-like in form
anthropologist n. student of or expert in anthropology
anthropomorphic adj. treating gods, animals, etc as human in form and personality ,
anticlimax n. disappointing end to a series of events which had seemed likely to become more interesting, exciting or impressive
antidote n. ~ substance that acts against the effects of a poison or disease
antipathy settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE
antiquated adj. (of things) out of date, obsolete ,
antique adj. belonging to the distant past
antiquity n. ancient times, esp before the Middle Ages
antiseptic n. substance that prevents a wound, etc from becoming septic, esp by destroying bacteria
antithesis n. ~ (of/to sth/sb) direct opposite
antler n. branched horn of a stag or of some other deer
anvil n. iron block on which a smith shapes heated metal by hammering it
apathetic adj. showing or feeling apathy
apathy n. ~ lack of interest, enthusiasm or concern; indifference
ape n. any of the four primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon) most closely related to man .
aperture n. narrow opening
apex n. top or highest point
aphasia n. partial or total loss of ability to speak or understand spoken language, caused by damage to the brain
aphorism n. short wise saying; maxim ;
apiarist n. person who keeps bees
apiary n. place with a number of hives where bees are kept
apiculture the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey
aplomb n. confidence and self-control; poise
apocalyptic adj. prophesying great and dramatic events like those in the Apocalypse
apocryphal adj. not likely to be genuine; untrue or invented
apogee n. position in the orbit of the moon, a planet or a satellite when it is at its greatest distance from the earth ,
apolitical adj. not interested or involved in politics
apologist n. person who defends a doctrine by logical argument
apoplexy n. sudden inability to feel or move, caused by the blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain ,
apostate n. person who renounces his former beliefs, etc
apothecary n. person who prepares and sells medicines and medical goods
apothegm = apophthegm
apotheosis n. (of a human being) making or becoming a god or a sain
appall to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay
apparent adj. clearly seen or understood; obvious
apparition n. appearance, esp of sth startling, strange or unexpected ,
appease v. make quiet or calm, usu by making concessions or by satisfying demands
appellation n. name or title; system of naming ;
append v. ~ sth (fml ) attach or add sth (esp in writing)
application n. ~ (to sb) (for sth) formal request
apposite adj. ~ (of a remark, etc) very appropriate (for a purpose or an occasion)
appraise v. assess the value or quality of
appreciate v. understand and enjoy (sth); value highly
apprehend v. seize (sb); arrest
apprehensive adj. ~ ~ (that.../for sb/sth) feeling anxiety; fearful; uneasy
apprise v. ~ sb of sth inform sb of sth
approbation n. approval; consent
appropriate adj. ~ suitable; right and proper
appurtenances [ appurtenance: ] a secondary or less significant thing or part
apropos adv, adj appropriate or relevant to what is being said or done
aptitude n. ~ natural ability or skill
aquiline adj. of or like an eagle
arable n. , adj suitable for ploughing and for growing crops
arbiter n. ~ person who has power to decide what will be done, accepted, etc with regard to sth
arbitrary adj. based on personal opinion or impulse, not on reason
arbitrate v. ~ (between A and B) make a judgement about or settle (a dispute) between two parties (usu when asked by them to do so)
arboreal adj. of or living in trees
arboretum n. place where trees are grown for scientific study or for display
arcade n. covered passage or area, esp one with an arched roof and shops along one or both sides
arcane requiring secret or mysterious knowledge
arch- comb form chief; most important
archaeology n. study of ancient civilizations by scientific analysis of physical remains found in the ground
archaic adj. of a much earlier or an ancient period in history
archetype n. original or ideal model from which others are copied; prototype ;
archipelago n. (sea surrounding a) group of many islands
archives n. historical documents or records of a government, town, etc
ardor extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY
arduous adj. needing much effort or energy; laborious
argot n. words and phrases used by a particular group and not intended to be understood by others; cant ;
aria n. song for one voice, esp in an opera or oratorio
arid adj. having little or no rainfall; dry
aristocracy n. highest social class; the nobility
armada n. large fleet of ships
aromatic adj. having a pleasant, distinctive smell; fragrant
arraign v. ~ sb (law ) bring a criminal charge against sb; bring sb to court for trial
array v. place (esp armed forces, troops, etc) in battle order
arrears n. money that is owed and should have been paid earlier
arrhythmic lacking rhythm or regularity
arrogance a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or presumptuous claims
arroyo a brook; a creek a water-carved gully or channel
arsenal n. place where weapons and ammunition are made or stored
artery n. any of the tubes carrying blood from the heart to all parts of the body
artful adj. cunningly clever at getting what one wants; crafty
articulate adj. able to express one's ideas clearly in words
artifacts something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially :an object remaining from a particular period
artifice n. clever trickery; deception
artisan a manually skilled worker
artless adj. simple and natural; without deceit
ascendancy n. ~ (position of) having dominant power or control
ascertain v. discover (sth) so that one is certain; get to know
ascetic adj. not allowing oneself pleasures and comforts; having or involving a very austere life
ascribe v. ~ sth to sb/sth consider sth to be caused by, written by or belonging to sb/sth
aseptic adj. free from bacteria that cause a thing to become septic; surgically clean
ashen adj. like ashes in colour; very pale
asinine adj. stupid or stubborn
askance adv. look
askew adj. , adv not in a straight or level position; crooked
asperity n. harshness or severity, esp of manner
aspersion slanderous remark
aspirant n. ~ (fml ) person who is ambitious (for fame, promotion, success, etc)
aspiration n. ~ ~ (to do sth) strong desire or ambition
aspire v. ~ after/to sth desire strongly to achieve sth; have ambition for sth
assail v. ~ sb (fml ) attack sb violently or repeatedly
assay n. testing of esp metals for quality
assent n. ~ (fml ) agreement; approval
assert v. make others recognize (sth) by behaving firmly and confidently
assessment n. action of assessing
assiduous adj. showing constant and careful attention
assimilate v. (cause sth to) become absorbed into the body after digestion
assuage v. make (sth) less severe; soothe
assumption n. thing accepted as true or as sure to happen, but not proved
assurance n. confident belief in one's own abilities and powers
asteroid n. any of many small planets revolving round the sun, esp between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
astigmatism n. defect in an eye or a lens that prevents correct focusing
astral adj. of or from the stars
astringent n. substance, used medically or in cosmetics, that makes skin or body tissue contract and so stops bleeding
astronomical adj. of astronomy
astute adj. clever and quick at seeing how to gain an advantage; shrewd
asunder adv. into pieces; apart
asylum n. safety; refuge
asymmetric adj. not having parts that correspond to each other in size, shape, etc; lacking symmetry
atavism n. reappearance in a person of a characteristic or quality that has not been seen in his family for many generations
atheistic adj.
atone v. ~ (fml ) act in a way that compensates for a previous wrong, error, etc
atrocity n. great wickedness or cruelty
atrophy n. wasting away of the body or part of it through lack of nourishment or use
attentive adj. ~ giving attention (to sb/sth); alert and watchful
attenuate v. make (sth/sb) thin or slender
attest v. ~ (to) sth be or give clear proof of sth
attire n. clothes; dress
attribute v. ~ sth to sb/sth regard sth as belonging to, caused by or produced by sb/sth
attrition n. process of gradually weakening sb's strength and confidence by continuous harassment
atypical adj. not representative or characteristic of its type; not typical
audacious adj. showing a willingness to take risks; daring; fearless
audit n. official examination of accounts to see that they are in order
augment v. make (sth) larger in number or size; increase
augury omen; prophecy
august majestic, venerable
aureole sun's corona; halo
auroral [ aurora: ] an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands, curtains, or streamers of light, usually green, red, or yellow, that move across the sky in polar regions.
auspicious adj. showing signs of future success; favourable; promising
austere adj. severely and strictly moral; having no pleasures or comforts
austerity n. quality of being austere
authenticate Rractical experience of sth
authoritarian adj. favouring complete obedience to authority before personal freedom
authoritative adj. having authority; that can be trusted; reliable
autocrat n. ruler of an autocracy
autocratic adj.
automaton n. = robot 1
autonomous adj. self-governing; acting independently
autopsy n. examination of a dead body to learn the cause of death; post-mortem ()
auxiliary adj. giving help or support; additional
avalanche n. mass of snow, ice and rock that slides rapidly down the side of a mountain
avarice n. greed for wealth or gain
avenge v. take or get revenge for
aver v. (fml ) state (sth) firmly and positively; assert ;
averse adj. ~ to sth not liking sth; opposed to sth
aversion n. ~ strong dislike
avert v. ~ sth turn sth away
aviary n. large cage or building for keeping birds in, eg in a zoo ,
avid adj. ~ eager; greedy
avocation secondary or minor occupation
avow v. declare (sth) openly; admit
avuncular adj. of or like an uncle, esp in manner
awe n. feeling of respect combined with fear or wonder
awful adj. extremely bad or unpleasant; terrible
awl n. small pointed tool for making holes, esp in leather or wood
awry adv. crookedly; out of position; askew ;
axiom n. statement that is accepted as true without further proof or argument
azure n. , adj bright blue, as of the sky
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